Good news for Koha users in Kerala : SMS Send driver for eSMS Kerala service released as Free Software (FOSS)

ANNOUNCEMENT: L2C2 Technologies has released the SMS::Send::IN::eSMS driver required by Koha ILS users using the eSMS Kerala service provided by the Kerala State IT Mission under a Free Software license. The development of the driver was made possible by the funding support of the State Librarian, State Central Library, Thiruvananthapurm (Trivandrum), Kerala, with KELTRON (Kerala State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd) acting as the facilitator. Any Koha library in the state of Kerala who are eligible to use the eSMS Kerala SMS service (provided by KSITM) can now freely implement SMS support using this driver.

With this release, it becomes the second open source regional SMS::Send driver now available to Indian Koha users that can be freely downloaded from the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network or CPAN.

Sending SMSes from Koha

For a long time now Koha has supported sending of SMS (short message service) text messages to library patrons and users about account creation, issue, return, fines, holds, overdues, purchase suggestions etc. To send out SMSes from Koha, we have to use the SMS service of a bulk transactional SMS service provider who provides that service.

What are SMS::Send drivers and why does Koha need them?

In order to communicate with the service provider’s messaging sending interface (also called messaging API), Koha uses a type of software called “SMS::Send driver”. The “catch” being that each service provider requires a different SMS Send driver. Sort of like the SIM card in our cellphones e.g. if we wish to use a Vodafone number we must have a Vodafone SIM card. However, unlike a SIM card the SMS::Send driver which is a software module written in the PERL language is not provided by the SMS service provider. Either one has to use a Free & Open Source send driver that already exists OR one has to write one by referring to (usually) the HTTP API of the SMS provider.

About eSMS Kerala

eSMS is an exclusive SMS Gateway established by the Kerala State IT Mission for use by various government departments for providing departmental services over mobile phones.

Downloading the driver

The SMS::Send::IN:eSMS driver can directly downloaded from CPAN by visiting or from L2C2 Technologies’s public repository on Github at

See also

1. “Koha and key lessons of using transactional SMS in India” –

Adding autocomplete support to MARC21 260 / 264 (imprint) fields in Koha

Adding auto-complete feature to Koha’s MARC21 260 / 264 field (Imprint – place, name of publisher, distributor etc) as a cataloging aid.

As per LC’s AACR2 (as well as RDA) instructions, the imprint information as captured in MARC21 field 260 (AACR2) and 264 (RDA) should be *transcribed* and not *recorded* using the principle – “Take What You See and Accept What You Get” [1]. As a result, the 260$a (place) and 260$b (publisher, distributor etc) are usually not handled as fields whose values are controlled using authorized values.

Up until 2001, the 260 field was a NR field. It was made repeatable to accomodate frequent publisher name changes.

Since the 260$a and 260$b are not usually guided by authorized values, it is noted (at least in the Indian sub continent context) that catalogers often make typographical errors while transcribing the data, e.g. “Pearson Education” may be inadvertantly added as “Peerson Education” or as even as “Pearshon education”, while “Kolkata” may have been entered both as “Kolkata” as well as “Kolkatta” or even as “Kolkhata”. Without authority control of the field, this cataloging quality check is often overlooked. Errors like this often end up affecting the result of advanced searches or custom SQL reports.

Luckily for us, Koha ILS uses jquery extensively while (via jquery-ui) provides for nice autocomplete widgets, like the ones we see in action when we type in part of the borrower’s name in patron search (checkout) or in the authoritiy headings search, where entering 3 characters triggers the AJAX based lookup with the option to select one of the offered list *OR* to type in our own.

AJAX stands for “Asynchronous Javascript and XML”. In simple terms it encompasses a set of web development technique that allows us to fetch and load data from a remote server into our currently open page, without requiring us to refresh / reload the page. [2]

Recently a client requested that we offer them a way to look up publisher names and place names (for field 260) already entered into their Koha instance, without having to type it all in every time. For example in their database they already had the following publisher names entered – “Pearson Education, Prentice Hall India, PacktPub, Press Trust of India” etc. Now they if they encountered an item that was from these publishers they should be able to pull up a list just by entering “P” into the 260$b field and then be able to select the one applicable. And if they encountered a publisher name say “Penguin Books”, they should be able to type it in as well.

Koha 16.11 ships with 3 (three) different scripts that show us how to achieve this. You can find out which ones these are by using the command `locate`. NOTE: You may be required to run `sudo updatedb` once before locate finds the files. For our requirement we modeled our script which we’ll call on /usr/share/koha/intranet/cgi-bin/cataloguing/ You can grab a copy of from L2C2’s github repo here [3]. The script returns a JSON based result set if results matching your input is found.

Remember that **every** script that Koha executes, needs it executable bit set, and so does this one. Therefore, do *not* forget to set the executable bit for the script with `sudo chmod a+x /usr/share/koha/intranet/cgi-bin/cataloguing/` before you proceed to the next step.

Step #2 : Enabling the fields

With the script in place, we now need to turn to IntranetUserJS system preference and enter the following jquery snippet to enable autocomplete in 260$a and 260$b :

  $( '[id^="tag_260_subfield_a"]' ).autocomplete({
    source: function(request, response) {
        url: "/cgi-bin/koha/cataloguing/",
        dataType: "json",
        data: {
          term: request.term,
          table: "biblioitems",
          field: "place"
        success: function(data) {
          response( $.map( data, function( item ) {
            return {
              label: item.fieldvalue,
              value: item.fieldvalue
    minLength: 1,
  $( '[id^="tag_260_subfield_b"]' ).autocomplete({
    source: function(request, response) {
        url: "/cgi-bin/koha/cataloguing/",
        dataType: "json",
        data: {
          term: request.term,
          table: "biblioitems",
          field: "publishercode"
        success: function(data) {
          response( $.map( data, function( item ) {
            return {
              label: item.fieldvalue,
              value: item.fieldvalue
    minLength: 1,

A video of autocomplete in action


By tweaking the script or even by completely re-writing it to use the various search functions shipped by Koha inside its /usr/share/koha/lib directory on a .deb package based installation, you can do so much more than possible with this simple hack. Happy hacking! 🙂 [4]






JQuery tips for Koha : Adding easy to use indicator picklists

Adding picklists for selecting indicators for MARC tags used in Koha’s cataloging worksheets.

During data audits of users’ MARC21 data, quite frequently we find that most, if not all, records are often without any form of use of indicators. Trained library professionals often give a sheepish grin when asked why they didn’t add them while cataloging the documents. 😉 But trained librarians are not the only ones who work with Library systems like Koha. There are many people who find themselves working in a library without a formal training or sufficient theoretical background on MARC21. Generally speaking reasons for not adding the indicators range from:

  • Lack of practise – thus unsure of the correct indicator to use.
  • Lack of awareness – i.e. untrained people with a very basic knowledge of cataloging
  • Lack of user-friendly mechanism to input indicators
  • And lastly – sheer laziness

Now, about the last one we can’t do anything about, however the rest of the reasons might use a bit of leg-up! So here goes the newest tutorial on how to add easy-to-use picklists to help us correctly populate the indicators.

According to the Design Principles of MARC21, indicators form a part of the family of content designators [1]. As defined, an indicator is :

A data element associated with a data field that supplies additional information about the field. An indicator may be any ASCII lowercase alphabetic, numeric, or blank.

For this tutorial we will focus on MARC21 bibliographic data fields 100 and 110 i.e. Main Entry Personal Name and Main Entry Corporate Name respectively. We will not touch the Koha template files at all, rather as per the global best practice for Koha ILS, we will utilize only JQuery (JavaScript) and HTML via the Koha system preference IntranetUserJS.

Step #1 – Finding out the DOM nodes

We will start by going to Home > Cataloging > Add MARC record in Koha and select the framework we want to work on. In this case we chose to work with the “Default framework” that is shipped with Koha. We used Google Chrome’s Developer Tools Inspect option [2] to find out what is the id of the selector (DOM node) we need for Main Entry Personal Name.

Since we need space to setup the picklist we chose to use the free space available on the div that displays information about the field that follows immediate after it. As you can see in the image below that div has an id identifying it, which is very good for us, since it makes selecting the DOM node absolutely painless.


It should noted that when Koha renders the cataloging interface, it suffixes the HTML element IDs with a random number (one for each new tag). In this case, the id was div_indicator_tag_100_838390 where “838390” is the random suffix number. We needed to latch on to the first part i.e. div_indicator_tag_100.

Step #2 – Let the JQuery magic work

We have to add the select dropdown picklists right after the text on the div_indicator_tag_XXX DIVs. The value we will use for the indicators will come from here and here respectively.

if ( $("#cat_addbiblio") ) {	// only while adding biblios
  $('div[id^="div_indicator_tag_100"]').append(' <label for="tag_100_indicators">Apply Ind1, Ind2</label> <select id="tag_100_indicators"><option>-Select-</option><option value="1">1 - Surname</option><option value="0">0 - Forename</option><option value="3">3 - Family name</option></select>');
  $('div[id^="div_indicator_tag_110"]').append(' <label for="tag_110_indicators">Apply Ind1, Ind2</label> <select id="tag_110_indicators"><option>-Select-</option><option value="2">2 - Name in direct order</option><option value="0">0 - Inverted name</option><option value="1">1 - Jurisdiction name</option></select>'); };   // end if


While that added the picklists, we still have to add the actual logic that will allow the indicators to be populated on selecting from the list. Again we will turn to JQuery for the following snippet:

    var what_clicked_100 = $('#tag_100_indicators').val();
    if ( !isNaN(what_clicked_100) ) {
    } else {
    var what_clicked_110 = $('#tag_110_indicators').val();
    if ( !isNaN(what_clicked_110) ) {
    } else {

The code above is listening to see when we click and select a value from the picklists i.e. when we trigger a click JavaScript event. Next it checks if we had selected a real value OR whether we had just “clicked” on the placeholder “-Select-” option that no value. And lastly based on what we had selected it sets the ind1 and ind2 values according.



In this manner we can add easy-to-use picklists for indicators. Since it is now only a matter of selecting from the available values, it also reduces significantly the scope for typographical errors during data entry into the indicator boxes. Before we leave for today, do note that the second code listing may be better handled as a JavaScript function to which the references are passed to by a handler hook. Doing so would make for a cleaner and leaner implementation of this concept especially if you are planning to set it up for all the non control MARC21 fields you use. Also, you may wish to implement the selected dropdown value check using something other than IsNan [3].


[1] “MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media – RECORD STRUCTURE (2000)”

[2] “Chrome DevTools” –

[3] isNaN() –

Fakirchand College Library partners with L2C2 Technologies

Fakirchand College, West Bengal chooses L2C2 Technologies’ cloud hosting services for their OPAC.

We are happy to extend a warm welcome to our newest client-partner Fakir Chand College, located in Diamond Harbour, West Bengal. The library has a collection of more than 52,191 volumes. The library is divided into three broad sections – the UG, PG and the B.Ed sections.

The online public access catalog (OPAC) can be accessed from here

L2C2 Technologies acknowledges with gratitude the co-operation extended by FC College. We would particularly like to thank Smt. Rekha Mondal, Librarian and Dr. Debashish Mitra, Bursar for their support.

About the college

Established in 1948, it is the oldest and largest college in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Affiliated to the University of Calcutta, the college is named after Sri Fakir Chand Halder, the father of founder Sri Jagadish Chandra Haldar, a local businessman. It offers undergraduate courses in liberal arts, science and commerce, a teacher training course as well as a few post-graduate programs. The college is located at Diamond Harbours in the southern suburbs of Kolkata, on the eastern banks of the Hooghly River quite near where the river meets the Bay of Bengal. [1][2][3]


[1] Fakir Chand CollegeWikipedia

[2] History from college website.

[3] Location from college website.

Koha Quick tip: Removing the dot from salutation like “Ms.” after a bulk patron import

A quick-n-dirty way to remove the trailing dot from salutation field after a bulk patron import into Koha.

Earlier today the deputy librarian at our client partner Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital (GIMSH) called us wanting to figure out how to fix a small, but crucial problem. The employee list from GIMSH’s HR department was used to create the patron bulk import CSV [1] file. All 143 records got imported without a glitch and each individual records looked perfectly OK when viewing them. However, when she tried to edit these patron records, she noticed that the salutation (e.g. Mr, Mrs, Ms etc.) would not show up in the salutation drop-down during edit! 🙁

missing salutation
Missing salutation even though salutation was entered into the database


About 141 out of the total 143 records had a period.” after the salutation and two didn’t. These two records which did not have the period at the end of salutation were displaying the stored value correctly in the drop-down, rather than showing as being blank. As it happens, Koha uses the BorrowersTitles system preference to store the options to display. The default options are Mr|Mrs|Miss|Ms. As you can see, none of these have a period at their end. So, while the salutation field value was stored in GIMSH’s borrowers table, it was not being displayed during the edit as the value didn’t match with the values stored in BorrowersTitles syspref.

The “Fix”

***WARNING*** The following step requires you to directly execute a SQL on the Koha database. This is usually not recommended, but some times, it is required to quickly fix a problem.

Using the TRIM() string function of MySQL in tandem with the specifier trailing [2] we can take out the “.(period) at the end of the salutation from all the records in the borrowers table in the following manner:

UPDATE `borrowers` SET `title` = TRIM(TRAILING '.' FROM `title`);
salutation drop down is working now
salutation drop down is showing the stored value correctly now


[1] See the entry Comma separated values from Wikipedia.

[2] String Functions in MySQL 5.5 –

[3] Sample patron data file – patron_import.csv NB. Those of you who wish to study how the HR data was prepared for import into Koha, can look here for a sample CSV file with dummy data (do not worry about privacy as the data is fake).

Adding randomized barcodes to Koha’s holding (item) records (in Bengali)

Last Saturday, while conducting the online training for Parama Sarkhel di (Librarian, Ramakrishna Sarada Mission Vivekananda Vidyabhavan) and her team members on how to add randomized barcodes to their holding (items) records i.e. 952, we recorded their remote Teamviewer session. The voice over is in Bengali, though one can easily follow the screen to understand what is happening here. Their OPAC is at

Released under CC 4.0 – Attribution – ShareAlike by L2C2 Technologies

Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Sciences & Hospital library partners with L2C2 Technologies

GIMSH, Durgapur, WB chooses L2C2 Technologies’ cloud hosted Koha ILS service for their new teaching hospital’s library.

In this festive season, we are happy to extend a warm welcome to our newest client-partner – Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital Library, Durgapur, West Bengal (India). GIMSH comes on-board as fully hosted Koha client with Koha based IR (institutional repository) facilities.

The online public access catalog (OPAC) is accessible at

About Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Science and Hospital

Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Sciences & Hospital, Durgapur is a Medical College with ultra-modern 300-bed hospital setup by Rahul Foundation under the visionary stewardship of Mr. R. N. Majumdar. GIMSH welcomes new admission of 150 M.B.B.S. students in the academic session of 2016-17. The medical school comprises of 21 departments with experienced faculty members with extensive facilities that include well equipped classrooms, laboratories, an air conditioned library etc. The hospital is having all the clinical departments like General Medicine, General Surgery, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology (Eye), Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), Obstetrics & Gynecology (OBG), Dermatology, Pulmonology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Dental etc. including a full-fledged emergency & trauma care center. [1]

About the Library

The library is located on the 2nd floor of the college building with 1827 sq. m. of floor area that consists of the Stack room, Journal section, air-conditioned Students reading room, Staff reading room, Internet MEDLARS room, Audio-visual unit, Reprography room, Circulation counter, rooms for the Librarian and other staff, Daftaries and Book binders, Skill lab etc.


[1] Gouri Devi Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital website

Changing languages in the drop-down for Google Transliterate API

Choose the list of languages to transliterate on the Koha OPAC

This tends to be frequent question that we often end up fielding from colleagues and customers. But before we get into this, please remember that this feature is probably at the end of it shelf-life. There are two reasons for this – the Transliterate API that this feature depends on was deprecated many, many years back, and secondly how badly this API was put together – it fetches the necessary JavaScript library from Google’s servers over HTTP! So, if you are using HTTPS on your Koha OPAC, you can kiss this feature good bye right now! Being deprecated there is almost zero chance that Big G will do anything to change that.

Life sucks right?? 😉 But as long as it is still there, here’s “one for the road”! 😀 So, read on!

Turning on Google Transliteration


It all starts with setting GoogleIndicTransliteration system preference to “Show” from the default of “Don’t show”.

By default that provides us with this short language drop-down:

For users from India, a country with 22 official language at the last count, that default list is woefully too little, too less. The good news is that Google’s Transliteration API supports several dozens of languages. Which ones? Well you need to dig around LanguageCode and SupportedDestinationLanguages enumerations in the documentation.

Show me the money!

The code to support the function is loaded via googleindictransliteration.js file that resides under /usr/share/koha/opac/htdocs/opac-tmpl/bootstrap/js/ on a Debian package based installation.

The screen grab below shows exactly that changes we needed to make in order to show on Hindi and Bengali as the list of languages, *and* with Bengali as default language option on the select drop-down.


So how did I know that I needed to use “bn” for Bengali? Well, that LanguageCode enum list I’ve linked to above. Simple really!

One more fact about this tip that will bug a few

Change(s) to the LanguagesCode enum like this within the googleindictransliteration.js file would cause *all* instances on a multi-tenanted Koha installation to display the same list of languages. So, if you need different sets of languages lists in different OPACs, you are probably out of luck.

Customizing Koha’s MARC21 frameworks? Know the rules or get help!

Either you know what you are doing or take time to learn or invest in quality support. Fail on all three counts and you are quite literally asking for an operational nightmare.

Recently a young colleague Sri Ashkar K. from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India) ran into a problem. He works as a librarian with Mathrubhumi, a major media house from Kerala. Specifically he needed to have a LMS solution to efficiently manage their collection of entertainment (mostly movies) related CDs and DVDs. For him the LMS was hosted Koha. However when he tried to issue an item i.e. a movie CD, he was stumped by this error every time:

Software error
No branchcode argument passed to koha::Calender->new at /var/koha_all/mathrubhumi/lib/C4/ line 3558

Being on a hosted Koha platform, he approached his service provider for support. He shared with them all the relevant screenshots leading to error detailed above.

The provider’s tech support could not identify the issue and instead informed him that they could perform checkouts (issue) without any errors. As Ashkar persisted, the service provider’s support desk asked him to provide remote desktop sharing using Teamviewer so that they could see “his problem” in action. Installing Teamviewer needed clearance from his IT department which required time and thus Ashkar’s checkout problem continued to linger. Finally about 10 days back he posted about it on the official Facebook page of Koha Library System Project, asking for suggestions to resolve it.

The first flag was raised by fellow Koha dev Mark Tompsett when he asked:

“/var/koha_all/mathrubhumi/lib/C4/” — That is not a standard installation path. How did you install this? And what version?

Ashkar replied that since the software was hosted, he did not know the installation details. This got my attention! If he was on hosted Koha, why was he turning to the community for support? What was his service provider doing in the first place? I decided to find out more. That’s when I discovered the details of his situation. Desperate for help, he provided me with superlibrarian access to his hosted Koha’s staff client interface. I logged in and found that the problem was very real. In fact, I found out a few rather *disturbing* things.

The hosted Mathrubhumi Koha instance wasn’t running on the stable version (which is 16.05.05 at the time of writing) of Koha ILS. In fact, it was running on an unstable development version (at the time of this writing it was using Koha 16.0600023). Development versions are not GA releases and are *never* meant for production use, they are meant for use by testers and developers. And secondly, I could not do a MARC21 export for his bibliographic data.

That set alarm bells ringing in my head and so with Ashkar’s approval, I created a backup of his Koha database and installed the backup on L2C2’s test server running the latest stable 16.05.x version.

The first clear indication of what was wrong came soon after running sudo koha-rebuild-zebra -v -f mathrubhumi successfully without any error. A wildcard search from both OPAC as well as the staff client failed to return a single result, even though the Zebra indexer and output logs showed no error. However, it was possible to access a record by directly accessing it by biblionumber.

Running the “MARC Bibliographic framework test” to check the MARC structure provided the answer. Sure enough there were two major errors as shown below:

homebranch NOT mapped the items.homebranch field MUST :

  • be mapped to a MARC subfield,
  • the corresponding subfield MUST have “Authorized value” set to “branches”
holdingbranch NOT mapped the items.holdingbranch field MUST :

  • be mapped to a MARC subfield,
  • the corresponding subfield MUST have “Authorized value” set to “branches”

The question now was to identify *which* MARC21 framework since he had three (03) of them.

Ashkar’s MARC21 frameworks

Checking the “MOVIES” framework, it was found that both 952 $a (homebranch) and $b (holdingbranch) were set to ignore in the Managed in tab dropdown. This explained the error displayed by “MARC Bibliographic framework test”. To know more about the the 952 MARC21 field in Koha, please read Holdings data fields (9xx) from the Koha community wiki.

The Fix

It was a simple matter of setting both 952 $a and $b to “items(10)” for the option Managed in tab. This took care of the “MARC Bibliographic framework test” error.

However, that was only the first part of the solution. Except two, none of his other 23 bibliographic records had their homebranch and holdingbranch defined. It was time for a batch item modification from the Tools page (Home > Tools). This has been covered in details in an earlier blog post – “Koha’s MARC modification templates comes to the rescue“, so if the topic sounds unfamiliar, it is suggested that you read that post first.

In order to find out all the barcodes that needed to be used to update the records, the following SQL report was used:

SELECT items.barcode 
  FROM items 
  LEFT JOIN biblioitems ON (items.biblioitemnumber=biblioitems.biblioitemnumber) 
  LEFT JOIN biblio ON (biblioitems.biblionumber=biblio.biblionumber);

With the list of barcodes in hand, it was time for the final steps:

  1. Load up barcodes for the records to be bulk modified
  2. Select the two fields that we wanted to update – homebranch and holdingbranch
  3. Select the actual branch option for both and click on Save
And we were done! 🙂

The Explanation

Understanding the error is quite simple if you know how circulation works inside Koha. A checkout operation needs to know a few basic things – (a) who owns the item; (b) where is the item presently located; (c) what to set as the issue and due dates and (d) who is taking it. Since the items attached to bibliographic records created using the MOVIES MARC21 framework did not have their homebranch and holdingbranch defined, at the time of checkout, as Koha tried to set the issue date and calculate the due date, using the date functions from the Koha::Calender object, it failed to do so. That’s what gave Ashkar his error and prevented him from checking out an item.

This still left one question unanswered – why did Ashkar’s hosting provider keep insisting that everything was working OK at their end and wanted him to provide them with Teamviewer access instead. My best guess is they were checking out the system using only the MARC21 frameworks which *they* had shipped i.e. default and fast add (FA) frameworks. Since records generated using these two frameworks (quite correctly) had 952 $a and $b set, none of these triggered Ashkar’s error during checkout. They certainly did not need Teamviewer access, the error in Ashkar’s framework should have been easily detected and quickly fixed. In fact, it took less than 3 mins to take care of it. But they failed, which is why it is important to either invest in your own skill development (read RTFM) OR invest in quality support.

“If you pay peanuts, you get monkeys” – James Goldsmith

Moral of the story: If you work with service providers whose front line tech-support is staffed with inexperienced people, be prepared for the long haul and self support yourself. Caveat Emptor!

Sammilani Mahavidyalaya partners with L2C2 Technologies for Koha hosting

Sammilani Mahavidyalaya (Kolkata), West Bengal chooses L2C2 Technologies’ Koha hosting services on the cloud.

We are pleased to welcome Sammilani Mahavidyalaya, Baghajatin, Kolkata to our growing family of client-partners in West Bengal. We look forward to working along with them in their quest to transform the library into a model library in the years ahead.

The OPAC is accessible at

About Sammilani Mahavidyalaya

Established in 1996, Sammilani Mahavidyalaya is located in Baghajatin on Eastern Metropolitan Bypass, Kolkata. Initially the college started functioning from a local secondary school, Santoshpur Vidyamandir (Boys) and the classes were held in the evening. Within a record period of only seven months it’s new building was constructed and the college shifted to its present address. From a humble beginning with just 3 students, the college today caters to the educational need of nearly 2000 students spread across its Humanities, Science and Commerce departments. It is affiliated with the University of Calcutta.

The college website is